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Add Friction

Adding appropriate friction into an experience will make the user slow down and think more about the interaction, as well as value that experience more after it's been completed.

e.g. Make a user enter their password before completing a financial transaction.

Appeal to Emotions

Induce emotions by images, stories, etc. and associate with actions.

e.g. Anti-Tobacco campaigns are successful by provoking a sense of disgust.


People follow who they perceive as experts. Displaying a credible source of authority will instill confidence in a service or action.

e.g. When selling a service or product, promote notable individuals or companies who are satisfied.

Break up pleasure, combine pain

Combine challenging elements together to get over them quickly.

e.g. Combine most painful elements of bandage changing.

Build Anticipation

Users experience more emotions about events if they are in the future (anticipating) than when they are in the past (remembering). 

Make them drool.

e.g. A countdown timer for a product release.

Calls to Action

Use authoritative calls to action to stimulate desired behavior.

e.g. "Employees must wash hands"

Create a Decoy

Encourage choice by introducing a similar but incompatible option to make another option more desirable.

e.g. The second cheapest and expensive bottles of wine on a menu are the most popular.

Emphasize Effort

Emphasize the effort which went or is going into a process to trigger appreciation.

e.g. Travel reservation website that searches a variety of other sites demonstrates to the user how much effort is being done on their behalf.

End on Positive

Users will remember the end of an experience the most, make it delightful.

e.g. A band's encore performance often are one of their most popular songs.

Features Over Facts

Prioritize the benefit of a human centered feature over technical facts.

e.g. Communicate the size of print possible from a camera image in addition to listing megapixels.

Foot in the door

Get a small commitment first, than increase the ask.

e.g. People are much more willing to put a large sign (drive carefully) in their yard, after they have already put a small banner in their window.

Frame as Gain

To encourage users to follow through on a task they have not committed to, bestow on them the reward before they complete the task.

e.g. Pre-approving someone for a loan before a more thorough due diligence is completed.

Give Exit Options

Give option to go back or return to decrease loss aversion.

e.g. 14 day return policies in stores

Herd Effect

Display the behavior of others to encourage passive decision making.

e.g. People like you who purchased "x" also got "y".

Highlight Key Message

Draw user's attention to important information or actions required of them by making it more visually impactful.

e.g. Users are more likely to read a statement if the typography is bold or outlined.


Offer a service or part of the service for free to drive up adoption, or encourage specific behavior.

e.g. Take a survey and get a feature or service for free.


Choose location to influence actions.

e.g. Grocery stores place popular items at eye level.

Make Altruistic

Charitable donations connected to the service or product increases loyalty.

e.g. "Buy one give one" promotions. Proceeds from purchasing a product are donated to a good cause.


Mirroring actions and words directly creates confidence in the user that a person or service is accurate.

e.g. A waiter repeating an order to a guest.


Giving significant, personalized and unexpected presents increases customer satisfaction, and encourages the user to return in kind.


Regret Aversion

Stimulate thinking of what could happen if action is not taken.

e.g. "Click it, or ticket" safe driving campaign presents a driver with the undesired consequence of driving without a seatbelt. Effective solution to get drivers to buckle up.

Remove Exit Options

Emphasize the necessity of completing an experience by blocking other options.

e.g. A video game that locks the doors during a boss battle.

Remove Friction

Make it as straightforward as possible for people to complete an action.

e.g. Populating a text field with user information from a social media sign in.


Admit wrong doing of brand or community, and suggest a solution to renew trust with a user.

e.g. Domino's pizza turnaround.


Anticipation of reward increases level of dopamine and activates "reward center" to induce craving, making people act to satisfy it.

e.g. Enter email address to enter sweepstakes give away.


Items or services that are promoted as being scarce will be perceived as more valuable. This references the economic drivers of supply and demand.

e.g. One ticket remaining.

Set Default

Set default to encourage a desired behavior. Communicate clearly to the user what action is being taken, and allow for the opportunity for the user to change the default state.

e.g. Opt in vs opt out checkboxes

Show progress

Show people they already made progress to motivate them to continue.

e.g. Combine most painful elements of bandage changing.

Structure Choices

Simplify complex choices to a few clear alternatives allows the user to have less "analysis paralysis" or difficulty of choosing from a large list of options.

e.g. Customers in a restaurant that have 3 items on the menu feel more confident and happier about their decision than those that have 10+.


Interactions which are easy to execute an action immediately.

e.g. "Donate Now" link in an email

Use Free

Offer a service or part of the service for free to drive up adoption.

e.g. Free delivery

Use Stories

Create easy to remember stories with relatable characters to increase empathy.

e.g. Politicians share stories how policies help or hurt constituents to communicate their objectives.